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SPAN 445: On and off la Isla

This is a guide designed to assist students in Spanish 445 to effectively do research in their areas of interest in order to complete their final paper.

Evaluating Scholarly Books & Articles: Information Literacy Guide

You may know that it's important to evaluate the information you find on web pages, but it's important to remember that you also need to evaluate information found in scholarly books and articles too. (If you're not sure what is meant by "scholarly article," see our Scholarly & Popular Guide.) Critical evaluation of your sources of information has always been a fundamental component of research, regardless of the format in which the information is presented or published. Some of the fundamental questions to consider during evaluation are:

AUTHOR
Note that "author" can be an individual or an organization.
  • Who is the author? Besides knowing author name, look for author credentials (degrees, positions, honors) on the book cover or introduction, or in sidebars or footnotes for articles.
  • Google the author. You may find book reviews and other helpful information.
  • Use library catalogs and periodical indexes to try to find out what else the author has written. This can help further determine whether the person is an authority on the topic.
  • If the author is an organization, what can you find out about this organization? For example, what is its purpose?
PUBLISHER
Knowing the reputation of a publisher is as important as knowing something about the author.
  • Who is the publisher? What else have they published? Try to find the publisher's website. Do they have specific types of topics or fields in which they specialize?
  • Know the differences between scholarly publishers (such as university presses and scholarly associations) and commercial publishers, government agencies, and other types of publishers.
  • Self-publishing one's own works is often called "vanity" publishing. Some publishers are also known as vanity publishers. These works usually lack rigorous peer-review or editing.
  • Consider whether it makes a difference which type of publisher has presented the work in question.
PEER REVIEW
Subject experts judge the quality and accuracy of submitted writings before they're published.
  • Scholarly books and research articles undergo extensive editing and review, often by a panel of experts and editors, before they're published. Any editorial questions must be resolved by the author before the work can be accepted for publication.
  • Edited works and research journals generally will list the names of the editors or editorial board who are responsible for reviewing materials before they're published. If there are editors listed for the work you're consulting, who are they, and what are their credentials?
  • Peer-review and editing is an attempt to control the quality and the accuracy of publications. Works that do not meet the standards of a given publisher, a peer-reviewed journal, or an editor are not accepted for publication.
  • Publisher and journal websites often give explicit information about their publishing standards. Can you identify whether the work you found has undergone extensive editing or peer review?
PURPOSE
An author's purpose should be clear. Sometimes authors try to present opinion as fact in order to sell or persuade.
  • What is its purpose? To present research knowledge in a subject area?To inform? To sell? To persuade?
  • Does the book / journal article present fact or opinion?
  • Is the material objective, showing multiple sides of an issue? Or does it present one side or one specific issue?
  • Who is the intended audience? Advanced researchers in a field? Members of a particular organization or viewpoint?
CONTENT
Consider the information presented in the work, and how it is organized.
  • Is the coverage of the topic complete? Does it leave out important information? Is the approach basic or advanced? Does it offer more than one perspective?
  • Research articles and scholarly books should include bibliographies, or lists of works consulted. Consider the length, detail, and accuracy of the bibliography in relation to the work in question. Does the bibliography seem comprehensive, or are just a few sources mentioned? How relevant or dated are those citations?
USEFULNESS
Consider whether the information is what you need for your purposes.
  • Any particular book or journal article can be a wonderful source for some purposes, but not relevant for others. Consider what you need the information for, and be critical - don't choose your sources based on how easily you found them. Make sure the content is useful and relevant to your topic.
  • Does the book / journal article cover the topic you need? Is that coverage sufficient, or is it too superficial (or too detailed) for your purposes?
ACCURACY
Verify information before you use it in your own research or class assignments.
  • Is the book or article well written and well-edited? Are there noticeable mistakes in spelling or grammar? Is it written in a style that you would expect for the topic and audience?
  • In research books and articles, is there a bibliography, or footnotes, or other means of listing sources the author consulted?
CURRENCY
Know when your information was published, and decide whether this makes a difference.
  • When was the book or article written? When was it published? Is the information still current or valid? If the information is no longer current, does it still have value for your needs?
  • Know the difference between current, dated, and outdated information, as well as those sources considered "classics" in your field. Different disciplines will have different needs as to the importance of currency versus older, established publications and materials.

Adapted from "Evaluating Websites" Instruction LibGuide;by ISU Instruction Department Staff

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